Publications

Check our peer-reviewed journal papers and conference papers.

A Global Scale Analysis of Subsurface Scattering Signals Impacting ASCAT Soil Moisture Retrievals

IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing

August 31, 2024

This research discusses the retrieval and validation of soil moisture data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), focusing on its applications and challenges. ASCAT data, crucial for various uses like weather prediction and drought monitoring, are compared with similar data from other satellite missions. Validations using multiple datasets highlight dependencies on land cover and vegetation, revealing unexpected quality variations across different environments. A notable issue identified is subsurface scattering, often misattributed to other factors, impacting ASCAT data quality significantly. The study recommends masking affected data using developed indicators and masks to enhance accuracy in practical applications.

Evaluation of a Combined Drought Indicator against Crop Yield Estimations and Simulations over the Argentine Humid Pampas

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

July 1, 2024

• The study evaluated the Combined Drought Indicator (CDI) in the Argentine Humid Pampas, focusing on its ability to track and characterize drought severity using precipitation deficits, soil moisture, and vegetation health anomalies.

• Strong spatial and temporal correlations were found among these variables, with the highest correlations observed for time lags of 0, 10, and 20 days, effectively capturing major drought events.

• The CDI aligned well with soybean and corn yield estimations and simulations, as well as official agricultural emergency declarations, demonstrating its effectiveness in representing drought impacts on agriculture.

• The study analyzed two significant drought events: the gradual and long-lasting 2008-2009 drought and the rapid-onset 2017-2018 flash drought, both of which severely affected crop yields and were well-represented by the CDI.

• Suggestions for improving the CDI include enhancing the temporal resolution of precipitation data and refining spatial resolution to better detect and monitor drought-affected regions, emphasizing the importance of collaborative efforts for advancing drought early warning systems.

Utility of Publicly Availability Stream Gauges Datasets and Deep Learning in Predicting Monthly Basin-scale Runoff in Ungauged Regions

Advances in Water Resources

June 1, 2024

•This study tackles the challenge of unbalanced stream gauge distributions by leveraging publicly available datasets and deep learning to enhance hydrological modeling in under-gauged regions.

•This study introduces a novel framework combining LSTM-based deep learning with GLDAS and GSIM data for effective runoff prediction across continents.

•This study assesses the sensitivity of LSTM models using data from diverse regions, emphasizing the importance of hydrological similarities for accurate runoff predictions in ungauged basins.

•LSTM models demonstrate superior runoff prediction skills over traditional GLDAS datasets, influenced by the hydrological similarities between training and test regions.

Intercomparison and Combination of Inland Water Observations from CYGNSS, MODIS, Landsat, and High-Resolution Commercial Satellite Imagery,

Geoscience Letters

February 1, 2024

Accurate and timely information about the extent and location of inland water bodies is crucial for various tasks related to managing water resources. A promising tool for identifying these water bodies is the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). CYGNSS uses eight microsatellites with special radar technology to observe surface reflectivity characteristics over both dry and wet land. This study compares data from CYGNSS with data from two other Earth observation systems—Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Global Surface Water product—for the contiguous United States.

We conducted a 1-kilometer comparison of water masks (representations of where water is located) for the year 2019, focusing on the area between latitudes 24°N and 37°N. To assess how well these water masks performed, we used statistical measurements called confusion matrices and high-resolution satellite images.

By using specific thresholds for different sub-regions observed by CYGNSS, we improved the performance of our water mask data, with up to a 34% increase in a measurement called the F1-score. We also calculated a metric that compares the amount of inland water to the size of the surrounding area, and found that CYGNSS, MODIS, and Landsat provided very similar estimates, differing by less than 2.3% for each sub-region.

In summary, this study sheds light on how well water masks derived from optical (visible light) and radar-based satellite observations compare in terms of their accuracy and spatial representation of inland water bodies.

Systematic modelling errors undermine the application of land data assimilation systems for hydrological and weather forecasting

Journal of Hydrometeorology

January 1, 2024

Recent advancements in land data systems and satellite soil moisture data show that using this data can help improve surface condition estimates in land models. However, this improvement in estimating soil moisture doesn't necessarily translate to better predictions of water movements like evaporation and runoff. This issue might be due to inaccuracies in how these models link soil moisture with water movements. Experiments suggest that even with better soil moisture data, these inaccuracies can lead to poor water movement predictions. Adjusting satellite data to fit these models isn't always effective and could sometimes worsen predictions. This highlights the need for more accurate models that can better link soil moisture with water movements.

Interpreting effective hydrologic depth estimates derived from soil moisture remote sensing: A Bayesian non-linear modeling approach

Science of The Total Environment

December 31, 2023

The Water Balance Equation (WBE) is like a budget for water in a specific area, tracking how much water comes in, goes out, and how much is stored over time. It's crucial in understanding water availability and the water cycle, especially on land. The WBE relates rainfall, evaporation, and runoff to changes in soil moisture.

Recently, there's been interest in using satellite data to guess some WBE parts, but this can be complex. Challenges include simplifications in the equation, missing water cycle elements, and limits of satellite data. Our study used advanced modeling to show these issues can affect the reliability of WBE estimates. We suggest treating these estimates as general guides, reflecting the satellite data used, rather than exact measurements. Better remote sensing and improved WBE will enhance our understanding of the water cycle.

* = mentored by Dr. Kim

Changes in the Speed of the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle Due To Human Interventions

Hyunglok Kim, Wade T. Crow, and Venkataraman Lakshmi
-
Under Preperation

A Global Scale Analysis of Subsurface Scattering Signals Impacting ASCAT Soil Moisture Retrievals

Wolfgang Wagner, Roland Lindorfer, Sebastian Hahn, Hyunglok Kim, Mariette Vreugdenhil, Alexander Gruber, Milan Fischer, and Miroslav Trnka
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
accepted

How Much Precipitation Transformed Into Terrestrial Water Storage in Global River Basins?

Baoming Tian, Yulong Zhong, Hyunglok Kim, Xing Yuan, Xinyue Liu, Enda Zhu, Yunlong Wu, Lizhe Wang
Nature Communications
Under Review

Improving Weather Forecast Skill of the Korean Integrated Model (KIM) by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture Anomalies

Yonghwan Kwon, Sanghee Jun, Eunkyu Kim, Kyung-Hee Seol, Seokmin Hong, In-Hyuk Kwon, Hyunglok Kim
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Major Revision

Developing Independent CYGNSS Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm with Mitigated Vegetation Effects: Incorporating a Two-Step and Relative SNR Approaches

Ziyue Zhu, Hyunglok Kim*, Venkataraman Lakshmi
-
Under Preperation

A Novel Soil Moisture Validation Method Utilizing Brightness Temperature

Ziyue Zhu, Runze Zhang, Bin Fang, Hyunglok Kim, Venkataraman Lakshmi
-
Major Revision

Observational Analysis of Long-term Streamflow Response to Flash Drought in the Mississippi River Basin

Sophia Bakar, Hyunglok Kim, Venkataraman Lakshmi
Weather and Climate Extremes
Major Reivison

From Theory to Hydrological Practice: Leveraging CYGNSS Data Over Seven Years for Advanced Soil Moisture Monitoring

Hoang Hai Nguyen, Hyunglok Kim*, Wade Crow, Wolfgang Wagner, Simon Yueh, Fangni Lei, Jean-Pierre Wigneron, Andreas Colliander, Frédéric Frappart
Remote Sensing of Environment
Under Review

Seasonal-scale intercomparison of SMAP and fused SMOS-SMAP soil moisture products

Zanpin Xing, Xiaojun Li, Lei Fan, Frédéric Frappart, Hyunglok Kim, Karthikeyan Lanka, Preethi Konkathi, Yuqing Liu, Lin Zhao and Jean-Pierre Wigneron
-
minor revision

Systematic Modeling Errors Strongly Undermine The Value Of Land Data Assimilation Systems And Microwave Remote Sensing For Water Flux Estimation

W. T. Crow, H. Kim , S. Kumar
IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
July 21, 2023

Utilizing Bayesian Machine Learning for Analyzing Error Patterns in Global-Scale Soil Moisture Data

H. Kim , W. T. Crow, W. Wagner, X. Li, V. Lakshmi
Hydrology Machine Learning (HydroML) Symposium, Phase 2 at Berkeley Lab
May 1, 2023

Uncertainty Analysis Framework in the Water Balance Equation Using Bayesian Statistical Modeling Approach

H. Kim, W. Crow
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2022

Retrieving Runoff in Ungauged Basins using Satellite Observations of Rainfall and Soil Moisture

H. Kim, W. Crow
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2022

Changes in Extreme Precipitation Patterns in the Meuse River Basin as a Driver of the July 2021 Flooding

B. Goffin, P. Kansara, H. Kim, V. Lakshmi
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2022

Reconstruction of the SMAP-based 12-hourly soil moisture product over the CONUS through water balance budgeting

R. Zhang, S. Kim, H. Kim, B. Fang, A. Sharma, V. Lakshmi
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2022

Hydrological flash drought forecasting using meteorological flash drought indices and machine learning approaches – A case study in the Mississippi River Basin

S. Bakar, D. Quintero, M. Le, H. Kim, S. S. Adams, P. Beling, V. Lakshmi
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2022

Global downscaling and assimilation of soil moisture

V. Lakshmi, B. Fang, H Kim
IAHS2022
March 1, 2022

Impact of Land Use Land Cover Changes on Carbon and Water Cycle Interactions: Using Data Driven Modeling and Satellite Products

M. Umair, S. Khan, H. Kim, M. Azmat, S. Atif
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2021

Water Cycle in Different Time Scales: Analyzing the Impact of Human-driven Changes in Land Cover using Bayesian Inferences and Data Assimilation Methods

H. Kim, V. Lakshmi
American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
December 1, 2021

Contact me

If you have a keen interest in the intersection of climate change and its impact on hydrological research fields, I encourage you to consider pursuing a Master's, PhD, or postdoctoral position. By delving deeper into this critical area of study, you can play an essential role in addressing the world's most pressing environmental challenges and help safeguard our water resources, ecosystems, and communities. Your dedication and expertise can significantly contribute to the development of sustainable solutions and innovative approaches to hydrological research. Embark on this exciting journey and become part of the passionate community of scientists working towards a more resilient and environmentally responsible future.